Using segmentation to support the learning from animated soccer scenes: An effect of prior knowledge

Aimen Khacharem*, Ingrid A. E. Spanjers, Bachir Zoudji, Slava Kalyuga, Hubert Ripoll

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Objectives: We used a cognitive load perspective to investigate the effects of levels of learner expertise and different forms of segmentation in learning from animated soccer scenes. Method: Expert and novice players (N = 48) completed a recall reconstruction-test and rated their invested mental effort after studying a continuous animation, a macro-step and a micro-step segmented animation. Results: Findings demonstrated an expertise reversal effect for segmentation. It positively affected learning outcomes of novices but not experts (even though they still invested less mental effort and repeated the animation less often in the two segmented conditions). Additionally, novices benefited more from micro-step segmentation than from macro-step segmentation, while experts performed at the same level with both forms of segmentation. Conclusions: Study results suggested that adapting instructional animation formats to players with different levels of expertise should be a crucial part of successful training.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)154-160
JournalPsychology of Sport and Exercise
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2013


  • Animations
  • Learning
  • Segmentation
  • Expertise
  • Soccer
  • Cognitive load theory


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