New trade mark uses in the Fourth Industrial Revolution: Virtual and augmented realities

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademic


Trade mark use in virtual and augmented reality (VR and AR) has given trade mark
proprietors the opportunity to offer both digital and physical products and services in
an alternative universe (VR) and in or in relation to our physical surroundings (AR).
This contribution discusses the way in which trade mark law needs to be adapted to
take these new uses into consideration, also considering the fact that the notion of
use in commerce may encompass the way in which third parties engage with trade
marks in VR and AR contexts.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIntellectual Property Law and the Fourth Industrial Revolution
EditorsChristopher Heath, Anselm Kamperman Sanders, Anke Moerland
PublisherKluwer Law International
Publication statusPublished - 2020

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