Rationale and Aim: As medical schools reduce the hours of anatomy teaching, residents in anatomy-intensive residency programs like radiology must independently acquire the anatomy knowledge needed to achieve competency. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a 4-week competency-based self-directed anatomy rotation for junior residents. Methods: Seven post-graduate year 1 (PGY-1) radiology residents completed a 4-week rotation of radiologic anatomy. The objectives were developed from standards, senior residents, and expert opinion, and the competency-based curriculum included self-directed modules. Precourse and post-course tests were administered and test scores were compared using an unpaired t test. In addition, PGY-1 residents completed a course evaluation and survey regarding their anatomy knowledge and anatomy exposure prior to completing the course. Results: Out of the 25 points available, the average pre-test score was 10.79 +/- 2.78 (range 8-16.5), and the average post-test score was 21.64 +/- 2.23 (range 18.5-25). This difference was statistically significant (P < .0001). The PGY-1 residents reported receiving < 10% of dedicated radiologic anatomy teaching prior to residency and felt unprepared for the anatomy required in residency. Overall, residents felt more confident in looking at images after completing the self-directed radiologic anatomy course. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of creating a self-directed course for radiology residents that significant improves their anatomy knowledge. Given the trend in medical undergraduate education away from dedicated anatomy teaching, residency programs should consider addressing anatomy education more formally for junior residents to ensure that trainees receive the foundational knowledge required for residency. (C) 2018 Canadian Association of Radiologists. All rights reserved.