Co-creating services - conceptual clarification, forms and outcomes
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Academic › peer-review
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess, clarify and consolidate the terminology around the co-creation of services, establish its forms and identify its outcomes, to resolve the conceptual pluralism in service co-creation literature.
Design/methodology/approach A focused literature review screened the articles published in five major service research journals to determine relevant contributions on the concept of co-creation of services. Then, a thematic analysis identifies the forms, themes and outcomes of co-creating services in the set of 80 qualifying articles.
Findings The study reduces conceptual pluralism by establishing different forms of co-creating services and developing an explicit definition of co-creation in services. The authors develop an integrative framework that recognizes involvement, engagement and participation as prerequisites for co-creation. Relating to the different phases of the service process, the specific co-creation forms of co-ideation, co-valuation, co-design, co-testing and co-launching are classified as regenerative co-creation, while the specific co-creation forms of co-production and co-consumption are recognized as operative co-creation. Both beneficial and counterproductive outcomes of co-creation are identified and arranged into a typology.
Research limitations/implications The integrative framework illustrates that service providers and customers are involved, engaged and participate in co-creating services, which manifests in specific forms of co-creation; they attain beneficial and counterproductive outcomes (personal, social, hedonic, cognitive, economic and pragmatic); and are influenced by a contextual multi-actor network.
Practical implications Co-creation in services is actionable; the typology of outcomes suggests service managers ways to motivate customers and employees to participate in co-creating services.
Originality/value This paper defines and establishes the conceptual forms of co-creating services and the identified outcomes, and develops an integrative framework of co-creation in services.
- Service co-creation, Engagement, Participation, Co-production, Co-design, Involvement, SERVICE-DOMINANT LOGIC, WORD-OF-MOUTH, CUSTOMER PARTICIPATION, HEALTH-CARE, PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT, CONSUMER PARTICIPATION, FINANCIAL SERVICES, PARTIAL EMPLOYEES, INNOVATION, COPRODUCTION