A recent study from the United Kingdom indicates an association between pre hemodialysis (HD) serum sodium (SNa+) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) in chronic HD patients. We extend this analysis to an international cohort of incident HD patients. The Monitoring Dialysis Outcomes initiative encompasses patients from 41 countries. Over 2 years monthly pre-HD SNa+ levels were used as predictors of pre-HD SBP and DBP in a linear mixed model (LMM) adjusted for age, gender, interdialytic weight gain, diabetes, serum albumin and calcium. Similar models were constructed with DBP as outcome. Analyses were carried out stratified by continent (North and South America; Europe and Asia). LMMs were also constructed for the entire observation period of 2 years, and separately the first and the second year after HD initiation. We studied 17 050 incident patients and found SNa+ to have a significant slope estimate in the LMM predicting pre-HD SBP and DBP (ranging from 0.22 to 0.29 and 0.10 to 0.21 mm Hg per mEq l-1, respectively, between the continents). The findings were similar in subsets of SBP and SNa+ tertiles, and separately analyzed for the first and second year. Our analysis shows an independent association between SNa, SBP and DBP in a large intercontinental database, indicating that this relation is a profound biological phenomenon in incident and prevalent HD patients, generalizable to an international level and independent of SBP and DBP magnitude.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 30 July 2015; doi:10.1038/jhh.2015.79.
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- INTERDIALYTIC WEIGHT-GAIN, NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE, LEFT-VENTRICULAR MASS, HUMAN ENDOTHELIUM, PLASMA SODIUM, SALT SENSITIVITY, DIETARY-SODIUM, HYPERTENSION, ALDOSTERONE, GLUCOSE