Introduction: In venous thoracic outlet syndrome (VTOS), pathology around the axillosubclavian vein causes venous compression with the subsequent development of upper extremity symptoms. This case report describes the analysis of all possible compression sites and subsequent treatment of VTOS patients with multiple compression points.
Report: A 22 year old male presented with severe pain and swelling in his right arm, which persisted after a conservatively managed primary upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. Compression of the axillosubclavian vein was seen both at the level of the pectoralis minor and the costoclavicular spaces. Both compression points were successfully treated by combining thoracic outlet decompression surgery with pectoralis minor tenotomy.
Discussion: This report underlines the importance of considering the possibility of multiple compression sites in patients with VTOS. Incomplete surgical release of all compression points leaves patients prone to re-thrombosis and/or persistent post-thrombotic syndrome. Timely recognition of all abnormalities on venography may allow for adjustment of surgical treatment accordingly.