PURPOSE: To investigate the stromal demarcation line after corneal cross-linking using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and its influence on the short-term results of cross-linking in patients with progressive keratoconus. DESIGN: Prospective, nonrandomized study. METHODS: Twenty-nine eyes of 29 patients with progressive keratoconus (n = 28) or after laser in situ keratomileusis ectasia (n = 1) were included and treated with corneal cross-linking at our institution. Measurements at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after corneal cross-linking were: refraction, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), tonometry, corneal topography, AS-OCT, specular microscopy, and aberrometry. Demarcation line depth was measured centrally, 2 mm temporally, and 2 mm nasally by two independent observers using AS-OCT and was correlated with clinical parameters. RESULTS: The stromal demarcation line was visible with AS-OCT at 1 month after surgery in 28 of 29 eyes. Pairwise comparisons between the two observers of the AS-OCT measurements did not show a statistically significant difference. After an initial steepening of maximal keratometry values and a decrease in BCVA at 1 month after surgery (both with P < .012), no significant changes were found at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery compared with before surgery. Refractive cylinder, topographic astigmatism, aberration values, endothelial cell density, and intraocular pressure remained stable during all postoperative visits. A deeper demarcation line depth was associated with a larger decrease in corneal thickness (r = -0.506; P = .012). CONCLUSIONS: AS-OCT is a useful device to detect the stromal demarcation line after corneal cross-linking. At 3 to 12 months follow-up, all clinical parameters remained stable, indicating stabilization of the keratoconic disease.