Total nut, tree nut, peanut, and peanut butter intake and the risk of prostate cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study

Esther A. Boudewijns, Lisette Nieuwenhuis*, Milan S. Geybels, Piet A. van den Brandt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Web of Science)
185 Downloads (Pure)


Background The consumption of nuts has been associated with a reduction of cancer risk, but only a few studies have examined the effects of nuts on prostate cancer risk. The current study prospectively investigated the association between the consumption of total nuts, tree nuts, peanuts, and peanut butter and the risk of total, advanced, and non-advanced prostate cancer.

Methods The association between nuts and prostate cancer was evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study, which was conducted among 58,279 men aged 55-69 year at baseline. A case-cohort approach was used for data processing and analyses. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 3868 incident prostate cancer cases and 1979 subcohort members were available for multivariable Cox regression analyses.

Results For total, advanced, and non-advanced prostate cancer, no significant associations were found for total nuts (total prostate cancer: hazard ratio (HR) (95%CI) for 10+ g/day vs. non-consumers = 1.09 (0.92-1.29), P-trend = 0.409). No significant associations were observed for tree nuts and peanuts for total, advanced, and non-advanced prostate cancer risk. Peanut butter consumption was associated with a significantly increased risk of non-advanced prostate cancer (HR (95%CI) for 5+ g/day vs. non-consumers = 1.33 (1.08-1.63), P-trend = 0.008), but not with total or advanced prostate cancer.

Conclusions No significant associations were found between total nut, tree nut, and peanut consumption and total, advanced, and non-advanced prostate cancer. Peanut butter might be associated with an increased non-advanced prostate cancer risk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)467-474
Number of pages8
JournalProstate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019


  • DIET
  • TEA

Cite this