Background and purpose Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the second most common variant of BPPV after posterior canal BPPV. Various liberatory maneuvers are recommended for the treatment of horizontal canal BPPV canalithiasis (hc-BPPV-ca). The aim of this study was to show how three-dimensional (3D) dynamic simulation models visualize the movement of the clot of otoconia within the canal for a better understanding of the theoretical efficacy. Methods Based on reconstructed magnetic resonance imaging and fluid dynamics, a 3D dynamic simulation model (as a function of time) was developed and applied. Thereby, six treatment maneuvers for hc-BPPV-ca were simulated: two types of the roll maneuver (the original 270 degrees and the modified 360 degrees) as well as two Gufoni and Zuma maneuvers (for geotropic and apogeotropic nystagmus). Results The simulations showed that the 360 degrees roll maneuver and Zuma maneuver are effective treatment options for hc-BPPV-ca for debris in all locations within the canal. However, the original 270 degrees roll maneuver will not be effective if the clot is in the ampullary arm of the horizontal canal. The Gufoni maneuver for geotropic hc-BPPV-ca is effective, whereas for apogeotropic hc-BPPV-ca there is a risk of treatment failure due to insufficient repositioning of the debris. Conclusions The 3D simulations for movement of the otoconia clots can be used to test the mechanism of action and the theoretical efficacy of existing maneuvers for the different BPPV variants. For hc-BPPV-ca, the modified 360 degrees roll maneuver and Zuma maneuver are theoretically efficient for all subtypes, whereas Gufoni maneuver is effective for geotropic nystagmus only.
- horizontal canal