The use patterns of novel psychedelics: experiential fingerprints of substituted phenethylamines, tryptamines and lysergamides

P Mallaroni, N L Mason, F R J Vinckenbosch, J G Ramaekers*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


BACKGROUND: Novel psychedelics (NPs) are an expanding set of compounds, presenting new challenges for drug policy and opportunities for clinical research. Unlike their classical derivatives, little is known regarding their use profiles or their subjective effects.

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to compile usage patterns and adverse event rates for individual NPs belonging to each of three main psychedelic structural families. Targeting the most widely used representatives for each class, we expanded on their phenomenological distinctions.

METHODS: A two-part survey was employed. We investigated the prevalence of novel phenethylamines, tryptamine and lysergamides in NP users (N = 1180), contrasting the type and incidence of adverse events (AEs) using a set of logistic regressions. Honing in on 2-4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C-B) (48.6%), 1-propionyl-lysergic acid diethylamide (1P-LSD) (34.2%) and 4-Acetoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (4-AcO-DMT) (23.1%), we examined their phenomenological separability using a gradient boosting (XGBoost) supervised classifier.

RESULTS: Novel phenethylamines had the highest prevalence of use (61.5%) seconded by tryptamines (43.8%) and lysergamides (42.9%). Usage patterns were identified for 32 different compounds, demonstrating variable dosages, durations and a common oral route of administration. Compared to phenethylamines, the odds for tryptamines and lysergamides users were significantly less for overall physical AEs. No significant differences in overall psychological AEs were found. Overall model area under the curve (AUC) stood at 0.79 with sensitivity (50.0%) and specificity (60.0%) for 2C-B ranking lowest.

CONCLUSION: NP classes may hold distinct AE rates and phenomenology, the latter potentially clouded by the subjective nature of these experiences. Further targeted research is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1783-1796
Number of pages14
Issue number6
Early online date30 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • 1-propionyl-lysergic acid diethylamide (1P-LSD)
  • 2-4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C-B)
  • 4-Acetoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (4-AcO-DMT)
  • AREA
  • Hallucinogen
  • Lysergamide
  • Novel psychoactive substance
  • Phenylethylamine
  • Psychedelic
  • Tryptamine

Cite this