The synthesized vectorcardiogram resembles the measured vectorcardiogram in patients with dyssynchronous heart failure

Elien B. Engels, Salih Alshehri, Caroline J. M. van Deursen, Liliane Wecke, Lennart Bergfeldt, Kevin Vernooy, Frits W. Prinzen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: The use of vectorcardiography (VCG) has regained interest, however, original Frank-VCG equipment is rare. This study compares the measured VCGs with those synthesized from the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) in patients with heart failure and conduction abnormalities, who are candidate for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods: In 92 CRT candidates, Frank-VCG and 12-lead ECG were recorded before CRT implantation. The ECG was converted to a VCG using the Kors method (Kors-VCG) and the two methods were compared using correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Results: Variables calculated from the Frank- and Kors-VCG showed correlation coefficients between 0.77 and 0.90. There was a significant but small underestimation by the Kors-VCG method, relative bias ranging from -1.9%+/- 4.6% (QRS-T angle) to -9.4%+/- 20.8% (T area). Conclusion: The present study shows that it is justified to use Kors-VCG calculations for VCG analysis, which enables retrospective VCG analysis of previously recorded ECGs in studies related to CRT.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)586-592
JournalJournal of Electrocardiology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Vectorcardiography
  • Kors method
  • Electrical dyssynchrony
  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy

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