The PRICES statement: an ESICM expert consensus on methodology for conducting and reporting critical care echocardiography research studies

Filippo Sanfilippo, Stephen Huang, Antoine Herpain, Martin Balik, Michelle S. Chew, Fernando Clau-Terre, Carlos Corredor, Daniel De Backer, Nick Fletcher, Guillaume Geri, Armand Mekontso-Dessap, Anthony McLean, Andrea Morelli, Sam Orde, Tatjana Petrinic, Michel Slama, Iwan C. C. van der Horst, Philippe Vignon, Paul Mayo, Antoine Vieillard-Baron*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

28 Citations (Web of Science)


Purpose: Echocardiography is a common tool for cardiac and hemodynamic assessments in critical care research. However, interpretation (and applications) of results and between-study comparisons are often difficult due to the lack of certain important details in the studies. PRICES (Preferred Reporting Items for Critical care Echocardiography Studies) is a project endorsed by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine and conducted by the Echocardiography Working Group, aiming at producing recommendations for standardized reporting of critical care echocardiography (CCE) research studies.

Methods: The PRICE panel identified lists of clinical and echocardiographic parameters (the "items") deemed important in four main areas of CCE research: left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions, right ventricular function and fluid management. Each item was graded using a critical index (CI) that combined the relative importance of each item and the fraction of studies that did not report it, also taking experts' opinion into account.

Results: A list of items in each area that deemed essential for the proper interpretation and application of research results is recommended. Additional items which aid interpretation were also proposed.

Conclusion: The PRICES recommendations reported in this document, as a checklist, represent an international consensus of experts as to which parameters and information should be included in the design of echocardiography research studies. PRICES recommendations provide guidance to scientists in the field of CCE with the objective of providing a recommended framework for reporting of CCE methodology and results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalIntensive Care Medicine
Issue number1
Early online date4 Dec 2020
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • Left ventricle
  • Right ventricle
  • Diastolic function
  • Systolic function
  • Fluid responsiveness

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