In contrast to findings in other countries, and surprisingly in view of the literature, high-tech economic activity in the netherlands is not spread geographically according to either relevant labour market characteristics or to localised agglomeration economies. Instead, statistical analysis shows that the netherlands is an urban field, and that the knowledge infrastructure is the only variable that can offer an explanation of the high-tech presence throughout the country. By analysing similar relationships for younger firms, we are able to make quite a strong case about causation.
Dolfsma, W. A., & van der Panne, G. (2003). The odd role of proximity in knowledge relations: high‐tech in the Netherlands. Journal of Economic Geography, 94(4), 453-462. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9663.00273