|Title of host publication||Handbook of Energy Governance in Europe|
|Editors||Michèle Knodt, Jörg Kemmerzell|
|Number of pages||20|
|Publication status||Published - 2020|
The energy charter treaty (ect) is a rare example of rules-based international energy governance, joining consumer, producer, and transit countries. Besides extending the multilateral trade rules to the energy domain, the ect has also become the most often invoked international investment agreement. However, the evolution of the ect has remained particularly susceptible to changing international power balances and ideational struggles. In reviewing the main scholarly and practical debates on the ect, this chapter walks through three decades of european and global energy governance, addressing the emergence, transformation, and the recent mixed signs of modernization and decline of the ect. The chapter touches on several core debates across disciplines, from the factors explaining the emergence of international regimes, the problem of overlapping regional and international legal orders, or the consequences of politicization of international economic institutions. The chapter concludes with a forward-looking reflection on the main challenges facing the ect in a context of crisis of the liberal world order and growingly relevant concerns such as climate change and the security implications of foreign investment.keywordsenergy charter treatydispute settlementglobal energy governanceforeign investmentenergy transiteu energy policy.