The 2019 European Elections: Something old, something new, something borrowed, and something green

Mark Franklin, Luana Russo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


In the aftermath of a European Parliament (EP) election, there are normally two prominent aspects that receive attention by scholars and experts: the turnout rate and whether the Second Order Election (SOE) model proposed by Reif and Schmitt (1980) still applies. That model is based on the idea that, because EP elections do not themselves provide enough stimulus as to replace the concerns normally present at national elections, the outcomes of EP elections in any participating country manifest themselves as a sort of distorted mirror of national (Parliamentary) elections in that country. The mirror is distorted because those national concerns are modified, not so much by the concerns arising from the European context in which EP elections are held as simply by the fact that EP elections are not national elections. In particular, at EP elections, national executive power is not at stake. The same party or parties will rule in each country after an EP election as ruled there before.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)307-313
Number of pages7
JournalItalian Political Science Review
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020


  • Elections
  • Europe
  • European Union
  • populism
  • voting behaviour

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