Subclinical Inflammation During Third Trimester of Pregnancy Was Not Associated with Markers of the Metabolic Syndrome in Young Adult Offspring
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Objective: Growing evidence indicates that the metabolic syndrome (MS) is rooted in adverse exposures during fetal life. The aim of this study was to assess the possible associations between biomarkers of inflammation during third trimester of pregnancy and markers of MS in adult offspring. Methods: High-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interleuki-6 (IL-6) were measured in serum samples obtained in gestational week 30. Offspring were clinically examined at age 20 years. Analyses based on 439 mother-offspring dyads were adjusted for maternal smoking during pregnancy, height, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), education, and offspring's sex. Offspring MS markers included waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, HOMA insulin resistance, and plasma levels of fasting glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol fractions, insulin, and leptin. Results: The median level was 2.8 (interquartile range = 3.3) mu g/ml for CRP, for TNF-alpha: 5.7 (3.2) mu g/ml, for IL-1 beta: 0.5 (0.4) pg/ml, and for IL-6: 1.1 (0.7) pg/ml. Concentrations were not significantly associated with MS markers in the offspring. The results remained essentially unchanged after correction for potential confounding. Conclusion: Markers for subclinical inflammation in third trimester in healthy women were not associated with components of MS in their adult offspring.