Something old, something new: vectorcardiographic loop size and response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

Elien Berti Engels

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisInternal

1131 Downloads (Pure)


The aim of this study was to improve the response to cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT). CRT is used in cardiac patients with an abnormal conduction of the electrical impulse through the heart. This special pacemaker ensures the resynchronisation of cardiac activation. Although this therapy results in an improvement in pump function in two thirds of patients, it is not or only little effective in one third of patients. This study shows that vectorcardiography can improve the selection of patients for CRT by, for instance, demonstrating whether a distinct cardiac conduction abnormality is present. This is relevant, as CRT almost always improves the cardiac pump function in this patient group in particular. In addition, this study shows that a kind of vectorcardiogram can be extracted by means of unused electrodes routinely placed during CRT implantation. This method can be used to establish a continuous and individual optimisation of the CRT device settings.
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • Maastricht University
  • Prinzen, Frits, Supervisor
  • Vernooy, Kevin, Co-Supervisor
Award date19 Oct 2016
Place of PublicationMaastricht
Print ISBNs9789462334137
Electronic ISBNs9789462334137
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • heart failure
  • pacemaker
  • CRT
  • vectorcardiography
  • patient selection
  • individual optimisation

Cite this