Social and cognitive variables predicting voluntary HIV counseling and testing among Tanzanian medical students

W. Vermeer*, Arjan Bos, J. Mbwambo, S. Kaaya, H.P. Schaalma

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objective: The present study aimed to predict Tanzanian medical students' Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) participation intention using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework, Further, differences between respondents who had previously participated in VCT and respondents who had not were assessed. Methods: Cross-sectional data were gathered from 186 Tanzanian medical students using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Almost half of the respondents (43.3%) reported having been tested for HIV, A prediction model containing HBM and demographic variables explained 31% of the variance in VCT- participation intention. Self-efficacy, fear of being HIV-positive, and perceived susceptibility contributed significantly to the final regression model. In addition, respondents who had previously participated in VCT expressed less fear of being stigmatized and being HIV-positive than respondents who had not. Conclusion: Fear of being HIV-positive, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility and fear of being, stigmatized were associated with either VCT-participation intention or previous participation. Further, the HBM accounted for a limited proportion of the explained variance in Tanzanian Students' intention to participate in VCT. This suggests that the validity of the HBM in explaining HIV-preventive behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa should be questioned. Practice implications: Interventions promoting VCT should incorporate program elements targeting self-efficacy, fear of being HIV-positive, perceived susceptibility and fear of being stigmatized.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)135-140
JournalPatient Education and Counseling
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2009

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