Smuggling, Trafficking, and Extortion: New Conceptual and Policy Challenges on the Libyan Route to Europe

K. Kuschminder*, A. Triandafyllidou

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

9 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

This paper contributes a conceptual and empirical reflection on the relationship between human smuggling, trafficking and kidnapping, and extortion in Libya. It is based on qualitative interview data with Eritrean asylum seekers in Italy. Different tribal regimes control separate territories in Libya, which leads to different experiences for migrants depending on which territory they enter, such as Eritreans entering in the southeast Toubou controlled territory. We put forth that the kidnapping and extortion experienced by Eritreans in Libya is neither trafficking, nor smuggling, but a crime against humanity orchestrated by an organized criminal network.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)206-226
Number of pages21
JournalAntipode
Volume52
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020

JEL classifications

  • f22 - International Migration

Keywords

  • Eritrea
  • Italy
  • Libya
  • Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
  • asylum seeker
  • conceptual framework
  • extortion
  • migrants experience
  • minority group
  • smuggling
  • social policy
  • territorial dispute
  • trafficking
  • MIGRATION
  • MOBILITY
  • MIGRANTS
  • REFUGEES

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