Smoking as a risk factor for developing Multiple Sclerosis: A meta-analysis of observational studies

I. Backhaus, A. Mannocci, Paul Lemmens, G. La Torre

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The aim of this study was to improve and update the pool of available studies included in the previous meta-analyses, and to provide further evidence about smoking as a risk factor for MS.PubMed and Scopus searches were undertaken to identify studies investigating the association between cigarette smoking and MS. Odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR) together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for case-control and cohort studies and prevalence rate for cross sectional.33 studies were suitable for the meta-analysis. The summary OR for case control studies (ever versus never) was 1.40 (95% CI, 1.29 to 1.52) and 1.42 (1.26-1.60) for current vs. no-smokers.Smoking is associated with MS risk. Research using animal models can help to fully understand the mechanisms behind the association.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)82-92
JournalClinica Terapeutica
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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