Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 Reduce the Accumulation of Myeloid Cells into Tumors and Attenuate Tumor Growth in Mice

Fumiko Marttila-Ichihara, Karolien Castermans, Kaisa Auvinen, Mirjam G. A. Oude Egbrink, Sirpa Jalkanen, Arjan W. Griffioen, Marko Salmi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

29 Citations (Web of Science)


Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an endothelial, cell surface-expressed oxidase involved in leukocyte traffic. The adhesive function of VAP-1 can be blocked by anti-VAP-1 Abs and small-molecule inhibitors. However, the effects of VAP-1 blockade on antitumor immunity and tumor progression are unknown. In this paper, we used anti-VAP-1 mAbs and small-molecule inhibitors of VAP-1 in B16 melanoma and EL-4 lymphoma tumor models in C57BL/6 mice. Leukocyte accumulation into tumors and neoangiogenesis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and intravital videomicroscopy. We found that both anti-VAP-1 Abs and VAP-1 inhibitors reduced the number of leukocytes in the tumors, but they targeted partially different leukocyte subpopulations. Anti-VAP-1 Abs selectively inhibited infiltration of CD8-positive lymphocytes into tumors and had no effect on accumulation of myeloid cells into tumors. In contrast, the VAP-1 inhibitors significantly reduced only the number of proangiogenic Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells in melanomas and lymphomas. Blocking of VAP-1 by either means left tumor homing of regulatory T cells and type 2 immune-suppressing monocytes/macrophages intact. Notably, VAP-1 inhibitors, but not anti-VAP-1 Abs, retarded the growth of melanomas and lymphomas and reduced tumor neoangiogenesis. The VAP-1 inhibitors also reduced the binding of Gr-1(+) myeloid cells to the tumor vasculature. We conclude that tumors use the catalytic activity of VAP-1 to recruit myeloid cells into tumors and to support tumor progression. Small-molecule VAP-1 inhibitors therefore might be a potential new tool for immunotherapy of tumors. The Journal of Immunology, 2010, 184: 3164-3173.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3164-3173
JournalJournal of Immunology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2010

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