Introduction: Cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) is associated with microvascular and parenchymal alterations. Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MRI has been proposed to simultaneously measure both the microvascular perfusion and parenchymal diffusivity. This study aimed to evaluate the application of IVIM in cSVD to assess the microvasculature and parenchymal microstructure.
Methods: Seventy-three patients with cSVD (age 70 +/- 11 y) and thirty-nine controls (age 69 +/- 12 y) underwent IVIM imaging (3T). Group differences of the perfusion volume fraction f and the parenchymal diffusivity D were investigated using multivariable linear regression accounted for age, sex and cardiovascular factors. To examine the relation between the IVIM measures and the disease severity on structural MRI, white matter hyperintensity (WMH) load served as surrogate measure of the disease severity.
Results: Patients had a larger f (p <0.024) in the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) than controls. Higher D (p <0.031) was also observed for patients compared with controls in the NAWM and grey matter. Both f (p <0.024) and D (p <0.001) in the NAWM and grey matter increased with WMH load.
Conclusions: The increased diffusivity reflects the predicted microstructural tissue impairment in cSVD. Unexpectedly, an increased perfusion volume fraction was observed in patients. Future studies are needed to reveal the precise nature of the increased perfusion volume fraction. IVIM imaging showed that the increases of f and D in cSVD were both related to disease severity, which suggests the potential of IVIM imaging to provide a surrogate marker for the progression of cSVD. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
- Cerebral small vessel disease
- Intravoxel incoherent motion imaging
- Diffusion weighted imaging
- Perfusion MR imaging
- Brain parenchyma
- DIFFUSION TENSOR MRI
- ISCHEMIC LEUKOARAIOSIS
- COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT