Schema Therapy for Personality Disorders: A Review

Gitta A. Jacob, Arnoud Arntz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Schema therapy (ST) with the schema mode approach is currently one of the major developments in CBT for personality disorders. The schema mode model includes both a general approach to treatment as well as specific variants for each personality disorder. The first specific mode model has been defined for borderline personality disorder. Treatment based on this model has been found to be very effective in several studies. A meta-analysis of these studies is presented. Further mode models have also been defined for most personality disorders and for forensic patients. Preliminary results of studies in these patient groups are also promising. Important current and future developments include applications of ST in other treatment settings (i.e., group and inpatient treatment), and the development of approaches for chronic Axis I disorders. Important topics for future research include direct comparisons of ST to other active treatment conditions, dismantling studies, and more fundamental investigations of experiential treatment techniques.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-185
JournalInternational Journal of Cognitive Therapy
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013


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