BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Absolute coronary flow can be measured by intracoronary continuous thermodilution of saline through a dedicated infusion catheter (RayFlow®). A saline infusion rate at 15-20 mL/min induces an immediate, steady-state, maximal microvascular vasodilation. The mechanism of this hyperemic response remains unclear. We aimed to test whether local hemolysis is a potential mechanism of saline-induced coronary hyperemia.
METHODS: Twelve patients undergoing left and right catheterization were included. The left coronary artery and the coronary sinus were selectively cannulated. Absolute resting and hyperemic coronary flow were measured by continuous intracoronary thermodilution. Arterial and venous samples were collected from the coronary artery and the coronary sinus in five phases: baseline (BL); resting flow measurement (Rest, saline infusion at 10 mL/min); hyperemia (Hyperemia, saline infusion at 20 mL/min); post-hyperemia (Post-Hyperemia, 2 min after the cessation of saline infusion); and control phase (Control, during infusion of saline through the guide catheter at 30 mL/min).
RESULTS: Hemolysis was visually detected only in the centrifugated venous blood samples collected during the Hyperemia phase. As compared to Rest, during Hyperemia both LDH (131.50 ± 21.89 U/dL [Rest] and 258.33 ± 57.40 U/dL [Hyperemia], p < 0.001) and plasma free hemoglobin (PFHb, 4.92 ± 3.82 mg/dL [Rest] and 108.42 ± 46.58 mg/dL [Hyperemia], p < 0.001) significantly increased in the coronary sinus. The percentage of hemolysis was significantly higher during the Hyperemia phase (0.04 ± 0.02% [Rest] vs 0.89 ± 0.34% [Hyperemia], p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Saline-induced hyperemia through a dedicated intracoronary infusion catheter is associated with hemolysis. Vasodilatory compounds released locally, like ATP, are likely ultimately responsible for localized microvascular vasodilation.
|Number of pages||7|
|Early online date||17 May 2022|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 2022|
- Absolute coronary flow
- BLOOD-FLOW MEASUREMENT
- Fractional flow reserve
- Microvascular dysfunction
- Microvascular resistance