Risk factors predicting onset and persistence of subthreshold expression of bipolar psychopathology among youth from the community

M. J. A. Tijssen, J. Van Os, H.U. Wittchen, R. Lieb, Katja Beesdo-Baum, M. Wichers*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Objective: To examine factors increasing the risk for onset and persistence of subthreshold mania and depression. Method: In a prospective cohort community study, the association between risk factors [a family history of mood disorders, trauma, substance use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and temperamental/personality traits] and onset of manic/depressive symptoms was determined in 705 adolescents. The interaction between baseline risk factors and baseline symptoms in predicting 8-year follow-up symptoms was used to model the impact of risk factors on persistence. Results: Onset of manic symptoms was associated with cannabis use and novelty seeking (NS), but NS predicted a transitory course. Onset of depressive symptoms was associated with a family history of depression. ADHD and harm avoidance (HA) were associated with persistence of depressive symptoms, while trauma and a family history of depression predicted a transitory course. Conclusion: Different risk factors may operate during onset and persistence of subthreshold mania and depression. The differential associations found for mania and depression dimensions suggest partly different underlying mechanisms.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)255-266
JournalActa Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2010


  • adolescent
  • bipolar disorder
  • cohort studies
  • early diagnosis
  • risk factors

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