Rigid, bio-based polyamides from galactaric acid derivatives with elevated glass transition temperatures and their characterization

Aleksandra A. Wróblewska, Katrien Bernaerts, Stefaan de Wildeman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


A comparative study was prepared investigating the synthesis of polyamides using bio-based building blocks derived from sugar beet pulp, namely 2,3:4,5-di-O-methylene-galactarate (GalXH) and 2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-galactarate (GalXMe) derivatives. Two different approaches towards the synthesis of bio-based polyamides were evaluated: melt polycondensation and direct polycondensation in solution via the phosphorylation technique. The polymerization of GalXMe with diamines resulted in polymers with narrow dispersity whereas GalXH gives polyamides with broad dispersity. Kinetic studies were performed to understand the different behavior of GalXH and GalXMe during polycondensation. The GalX monomers were combined with linear, cycloaliphatic and aromatic diamines, which resulted in amorphous polyamides with glass transition temperatures between 50 °C–220 °C. The obtained polyamides were stable at elevated temperatures (i.e. above 300 °C). The hydrolytic stability of the acetal/ketal groups in the GalX polyamides in different acids (e.g. 5% citric acid, 90% formic acid) was investigated and revealed higher acid resistance of GalXH compared to that of GalXMe. Furthermore, the water absorption of the GalX copolymers was compared to commercial polyamide references.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)252-262
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 25 Aug 2017
EventApplied Biobased Materials Conference - Brightlands Chemelot Campus, Sittard-Geleen, Netherlands
Duration: 12 May 201712 May 2017
Conference number: 2


  • Acetal
  • Bio-based
  • DSC
  • Degradation
  • Galactaric acid
  • High glass transition temperature
  • Hydrolysis of polyamides
  • Ketal
  • Melt polycondensation
  • Phosphorylation
  • Polyamides
  • TGA
  • Water absorption


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