Prognostic Implications of MRI-Detected EMVI and Tumor Deposits and Their Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy in cT3 and cT4 Rectal Cancer

D.P. Schaap, E.L.K. Voogt, J.W.A. Burger, J.S. Cnossen, G.J.M. Creemers, I. van Lijnschoten, G.A.P. Nieuwenhuijzen, H.J.T. Rutten, A.W. Daniels-Gooszen, J. Nederend, M. Kusters*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging-detected extramural venous invasion (mrEMVI) and tumor deposits (TDs) are risk factors for the development of local recurrence and distant metastases (DMs) in rectal cancer. However, little is known about their response to neoadjuvant treatment and its relation to oncologic outcomes. This study evaluated the incidence and features of mrEMVI and TDs before and after neoadjuvant treatment in relation to the development of local recurrence and DMs.Methods and Materials: Patients with cT3/4 rectal cancer without synchronous metastases who underwent surgery in a tertiary referral hospital were retrospectively analyzed. MRI scans were re-evaluated for the presence of mrEMVI, the occurrence of TDs, and response to neoadjuvant therapy (mr-vTRG).Results: In total, 277 patients were included, of whom 163 (58.8%) presented with mrEMVI. TDs were present in 56.4% of mrEMVI-positive and 9.6% of mrEMVI-negative patients (P < .001). The 5-year DM rate was significantly higher in mrEMVI-positive patients with and without TDs (45.2% and 35.9%, respectively) compared with mrEMVI-negative patients (25.7%; P = .012). After neoadjuvant treatment, the 5-year DM rate of patients with mr-vTRG 3-5 was 46.1%, whereas good responders (mr-vTRG 1-2) had a DM rate similar to mrEMVI-negative patients (25.7% and 25.7%, respectively; P = .002). The occurrence of TDs and larger mrEMVI size resulted in a lower likelihood of regression of mrEMVI.Conclusions: The prevalence of mrEMVI and TDs in cT3-4 rectal cancer is high and is associated with worsened oncologic outcomes. mrEMVI regression (mr-vTRG 1-2), which occured in 25% of the cases, leads to oncologic outcomes similar to those in patients without mrEMVI on baseline MRI. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)816-825
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Volume111
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021

Keywords

  • EXTRAMURAL VASCULAR INVASION
  • TOTAL MESORECTAL EXCISION
  • PREOPERATIVE RADIOTHERAPY
  • POSTOPERATIVE CHEMORADIOTHERAPY
  • VENOUS INVASION
  • FOLLOW-UP
  • SURVIVAL
  • RISK

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