Previously, we established an estimated exposome score for schizophrenia (ES-SCZ) as a cumulative measure of environmental liability for schizophrenia to use in gene-environment interaction studies and for risk stratification in population cohorts. Hereby, we examined the discriminative function of ES-SCZ for identifying individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorder in the general population by measuring the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Furthermore, we compared this ES-SCZ method to an environmental sum score (Esum SCZ) and an aggregate environmental score weighted by the meta-analytical estimates (Emet-SCZ). We also estimated ORs and Nagelkerke's R-2 for ES-SCZ in association with psychiatric diagnoses and other medical outcomes. ES-SCZ showed a good discriminative function (AUC = 0.84) and statistically significantly performed better than both Fsum-SCZ (AUC = 0.80) and Emet-SCZ (AUC = 0.80). At optimal cut point, ES-SCZ showed similar performance in ruling out (LR- = 0.20) and ruling in (LR+ = 3.86) schizophrenia. ES-SCZ at optimal cut point showed also a progressively greater magnitude of association with increasing psychosis risk strata. Among all clinical outcomes, ES-SCZ was associated with schizophrenia diagnosis with the highest OR (2.76, P < .001) and greatest explained variance (R-2 = 14.03%), followed by bipolar disorder (OR = 2.61, P < .001, R-2 = 13.01%) and suicide plan (OR = 2.44, P < .001, R-2 = 12.44%). Our findings from an epidemiologically representative general population cohort demonstrate that an aggregate environmental exposure score for schizophrenia constructed using a predictive modeling approach-ES-SCZ-has the potential to improve risk prediction and stratification for research purposes and may help gain insight into the multicausal etiology of psychopathology.
- risk score
- MENTAL-HEALTH SURVEY