Prediction of temperature and crystal growth evolution during 3D printing of polymeric materials via extrusion

Y. Yuan, C. Abeykoon*, W. Mirihanage, A. Fernando, Yue-che Kao, J.a.w. Harings

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Material Extrusion (ME), which is a type of Additive Manufacturing (AM), has become widely popular in the manufacturing world. However, the evolution of a material's temperature in this relatively new manufacturing method, which plays an important role in the polymer crystallinity, is not yet well researched. Next to voids, interlayer adhesion and surface roughness, the degree of crystallinity strongly determines the quality of printed products. Hence, a thorough and deep understanding of crystallinity in ME is essential for the improvement of the parts printed. In this paper, a primary generic model is proposed to predict the temperature evolution and crystal growth of printed polymer materials. The temperature evolution was developed based on the twodimensional domain discretisation method and the crystal growth was simulated via the Hoffman-Lauritzen theory. In the simulation, key parameters have been taken into consideration, such as the printing speed, thermal convection coefficient, thermal contact conductance with the platform, nozzle diameter and latent heat in crystallisation. Then, a single-line printing scenario was tested to verify the accuracy of the model. A comparison of the model predictions with the experimental results showed only of up to 3.8 degrees C deviations which is a 2% of maximum percentage mismatch from the full scale reading. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://

Original languageEnglish
Article number109121
Number of pages10
JournalMaterials & design
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2020


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Modelling
  • Semi-crystalline polymers
  • Domain discretisation
  • Material extrusion (ME) br
  • ACID)

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