PURPOSE: To investigate the potential of a combined assessment of clinical risk factors and biomarker profiling in the prediction of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after retinal detachment surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. METHODS: Multiplex bead-based immunoassays were used for the simultaneous measurement of 50 biomarkers in subretinal fluid samples obtained from patients who underwent scleral buckling surgery for primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Of 306 samples that were collected and stored in our BioBank, we selected 21 samples from patients in whom a redetachment developed as a result of PVR within 3 months after reattachment surgery for primary RRD (PVR group). These were compared with age-, sex-, and storage time-matched RRD samples from 54 patients with an uncomplicated postoperative course after primary RRD repair (RRD group). RESULTS: Preoperative PVR was the only clinical variable that was an independent predictor of postoperative PVR development (P = .035) and resulted in an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.83). The addition of the biomarkers chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22, interleukin-3, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor improved the model significantly (P <.001) and resulted in an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.04). A sensitivity of 94.1% and a specificity of 94.2% were reached, using a cutoff value of 5%. CONCLUSIONS: In combination with preoperative PVR grade, the measurement of a single biomarker or a small multibiomarker panel shows great potential and may predict postoperative PVR development after primary RRD in a highly sensitive and specific manner. (Am J Ophthalmol 2012;154:347-354.