This chapter contains an analysis of the effectiveness and legitimacy of modes of governance in four European city regions that show clear characteristics of hybrid governance in the sense that they combine both private and public features. This approach is used by the cities of Berlin, Eindhoven, Copenhagen-Malmö and Zürich to enhance the problem-solving ability of their regional governance and to apply new smart governance arrangements in a complex and multilayered environment. Each of the four cities has its own way of searching for effective links with public, private and social partners, but the issue of legitimacy remains underexposed. Risks with regard to effectiveness and legitimacy are inherent in hybrid forms of governance, but they may equally offer new opportunities for good governance.
|Title of host publication||Smart hybridity|
|Subtitle of host publication||Potentials and challenges of New governance arrangements|
|Editors||Joop Koppenjan, Philip Marcel Karré, Katrien Termeer|
|Place of Publication||The Hague|
|Publisher||Eleven International publishing|
|Publication status||Published - 2019|