Pharmacists' preferences for the provision of services to improve medication adherence among patients with diabetes in Indonesia: Results of a discrete choice experiment

B. Presley*, W. Groot, M. Pavlova

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Little is known about pharmacists' preferences for services to improve medication adherence in patients with diabetes in Indonesia. Identification of such preferences can provide valuable insights on suitable services from a pharmacist's perspective. This study elicits pharmacists’ preferences for services to improve medication adherence among their patients. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to survey pharmacists in all community health centres and three hospitals in Surabaya, Indonesia. Four attributes of consultation, namely duration of consultation, place of consultation, access to a pharmacist and patient copayment, and two attributes on additional services (educational and behavioural-based services) were included. The 16 profiles generated for DCE were partially balanced and partially without overlap. A random-effect logistic regression was used in the analysis. In total, 99 pharmacists completed the questionnaire, but only 80 were included in the study based on a consistency check. All attributes were found to determine preferences for a pharmacist service package. Pharmacists preferred a consultation with a shorter duration accompanied by flexible access to the pharmacist as well as a private consultation room and a lower patient copayment. Providing the patient with a brochure/leaflet was the most preferred additional service to help improve medication adherence. Patient group discussion and medication review were also preferred in combination with a consultation. Pharmacists' socio-demographic background characteristics influence preferences. These findings can be considered in evaluating current practice and designing pharmacist services to help improve medication adherence among patients with diabetes
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E161-E174
Number of pages14
JournalHealth & Social Care in the Community
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

JEL classifications

  • i11 - Analysis of Health Care Markets


  • Indonesia
  • adherence
  • adult
  • article
  • consultation
  • controlled study
  • demography
  • diabetes
  • diabetic patient
  • discrete choice experiment
  • drug combination
  • health center
  • human
  • medication compliance
  • multicenter study
  • pharmacist
  • preference
  • questionnaire
  • services
  • RISK

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