Patterns of access to reproductive health services in Ghana and Nigeria: results of a cluster analysis

Oluwasegun Jko Ogundele*, Milena Pavlova, Wim Groot

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Web of Science)


Background Inequalities in access to health care result in systematic health differences between social groups. Interventions to improve health do not always consider these inequalities. To examine access to reproductive health care services in Ghana and Nigeria, the patterns of use of family planning and maternal care by women in these countries are explored. Methods We used population-level data from the Ghana and Nigeria Demographic Health Surveys of 2014 and 2013 respectively. We applied a two-step cluster analysis followed by multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results The initial two-step cluster analyses related to family planning identified three clusters of women in Ghana and Nigeria: women with high, medium and poor access to family planning services. The subsequent two-step cluster analyses related to maternal care identified five distinct clusters: higher, high, medium, low and poor access to maternal health services in Ghana and Nigeria. Multinomial logistic regression showed that compared to women with secondary/higher education, women without education have higher odds of poor access to family planning services in Nigeria (OR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.90-3.39) and in Ghana (OR = 1.257, 95% CI: 0.77-2.03). Compared to white-collar workers, women who are not working have increased odds of poor access to maternal health services in Nigeria (OR = 1.579, 95% CI: 1.081-2.307, p

Original languageEnglish
Article number549
Number of pages12
JournalBMC Public Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 23 Apr 2020


  • Reproductive services
  • Maternal care
  • Family planning
  • Access
  • Nigeria
  • Ghana

Cite this