Background: Data on long-term consequences of neonatal pain is limited.
Aim: To assess whether perinatal factors, later pain experience and pain coping strategies are associated with altered pain threshold, pain tolerance and pain intensity in adolescents born preterm.
Study design: Observational, longitudinal study (Project on Preterm and SGA-infants, POPS-19).
Subjects: We analyzed data of 412 adolescents at the age of 19 years, who were born at a gestational age <32 weeks or with a birth weight <1500 g.
Outcome measures: Participants performed a standardized cold pressor test to assess pain threshold, tolerance and intensity. Furthermore, they completed a pain coping questionnaire (PCQ).
Results: In univariate analysis, female gender and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) were associated with lower pain tolerance, indicated by reaching the ceiling time of 180 sin ice water (females 19% vs males 29%, NEC 7% vs no NEC 25%). Female gender was associated with higher pain intensity (mean difference 0.58; 95%CI 0.21; 0.95) and lower pain threshold (log rank test p 0.007). In a multivariate Cox regression analyses, emotion focused avoidance pain coping style was significantly associated with lower pain threshold (hazard ratio HR 1.38; 95%CI 1.02; 1.87) and pain tolerance (HR 1.72; 95%CI 1.21; 2.42). NEC was significantly associated with lower pain threshold (HR 1.47; 95%CI 1.01; 2.14) and pain tolerance (HR 1.63; 95%CI 1.09; 2.41).
Conclusion: In adolescence, maladaptive pain coping, strategy was associated with lower pain threshold, pain tolerance and higher pain intensity. NEC was associated with altered pain response in adolescents born preterm.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Early Human Development|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 2017|
- Pain coping
- Cold pressor test
- Necrotizing enterocolitis
- COLD PRESSOR TEST
- NECROTIZING ENTEROCOLITIS
- COPING STRATEGIES