Background: Frozen shoulder is a painful glenohumeral joint condition. Pain-related beliefs are recognized drivers of function in musculoskeletal conditions. This cross-sectional study investigates associations between pain-related beliefs and arm function in frozen shoulder.
Methods: Pain intensity, arm function (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH)), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS)), pain-related fear (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK-11)) and pain self-efficacy (Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ)) were administered in 85 persons with frozen shoulder. Correlation analyses assessed associations between pain-related beliefs and arm function. Regression analysis calculated the explained variance in arm function by pain-related beliefs.
Results: Pain-related fear, pain catastrophizing and pain self-efficacy were significantly associated with arm function (r = 0.51; r = 0.45 and r = -0.69, all p < .0001, respectively). Thirty-one percent of variance in arm function was explained by control variables, with pain intensity being the only significant one. After adding TSK-11, PCS and PSEQ scores to the model, 26% extra variance in arm function was explained, with significant contributions of pain intensity, pain-related fear and pain self-efficacy (R2 = 0.57).
Conclusions: Attention should be paid towards the negative effect of pain-related fear on outcomes in frozen shoulder and towards building one's pain self-efficacy given its protective value in pain management.