On the Development of a Light Dosimetry Planning Tool for Photodynamic Therapy in Arbitrary Shaped Cavities: Initial Results

T.E.M. van Doeveren, R. Bouwmans, N.P.M. Wassenaar, W.H. Schreuder, M.J.A. van Alphen, F. van der Heijden, I.B. Tan, M.B. Karakullukcu, R.L.P. van Veen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Web of Science)


Previous dosimetric studies during photodynamic therapy (PDT) of superficial lesions within a cavity such as the nasopharynx, demonstrated significant intra- and interpatient variations in fluence rate build-up as a result of tissue surface re-emitted and reflected photons, which depends on the optical properties. This scattering effect affects the response to PDT. Recently, a meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin-mediated PDT study of malignancies in the paranasal sinuses after salvage surgery was initiated. These geometries are complex in shape, with spatially varying optical properties. Therefore, preplanning and in vivo dosimetry is required to ensure an effective fluence delivered to the tumor. For this purpose, two 3D light distribution models were developed: first, a simple empirical model that directly calculates the fluence rate at the cavity surface using a simple linear function that includes the scatter contribution as function of the light source to surface distance. And second, an analytical model based on Lambert's cosine law assuming a global diffuse reflectance constant. The models were evaluated by means of three 3D printed optical phantoms and one porcine tissue phantom. Predictive fluence rate distributions of both models are within +/- 20% accurate and have the potential to determine the optimal source location and light source output power settings.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)405-416
Number of pages12
JournalPhotochemistry and Photobiology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2020


  • bladder
  • delivery
  • dysplasia
  • fluence rate
  • head
  • in-vivo
  • neck-cancer
  • optical-properties
  • pdt
  • reflectance
  • HEAD
  • PDT

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