Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, characterized by T-helper (Th) 2 inflammation. Current lifestyle recommendations for asthma patients are to consume a diet high in fruits and vegetables and to maintain a healthy weight. This raises the question of whether other nutritional interventions may also improve asthma-related outcomes and whether these changes occur via immunomodulation. Therefore, we systematically reviewed studies that reported both asthma-related outcomes as well as immunological parameters and searched for relations between these two domains. A systematic search identified 808 studies, of which 28 studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were divided over six nutritional clusters: herbs, herbal mixtures and extracts (N = 6); supplements (N = 4); weight loss (N = 3); vitamin D3 (N = 5); omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) (N = 5); and whole-food approaches (N = 5). Fifteen studies reported improvements in either asthma-related outcomes or immunological parameters, of which eight studies reported simultaneous improvements in both domains. Two studies reported worsening in either asthma-related outcomes or immunological parameters, of which one study reported a worsening in both domains. Promising interventions used herbs, herbal mixtures or extracts, and omega-3 LCPUFAs, although limited interventions resulted in clinically relevant results. Future studies should focus on further optimizing the beneficial effects of nutritional interventions in asthma patients, e.g., by considering the phenotypes and endotypes of asthma.
- immune system
- EXHALED NITRIC-OXIDE
- POLYUNSATURATED FATTY-ACIDS
- EOSINOPHILIC AIRWAY INFLAMMATION
- NIGELLA-SATIVA SUPPLEMENTATION
- GREEN-LIPPED MUSSEL