Norming clinical questionnaires with multiple regression: the Pain Cognition List.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Questionnaires for measuring patients' feelings or beliefs are commonly used in clinical settings for diagnostic purposes, clinical decision making, or treatment evaluation. Raw scores of a patient can be evaluated by comparing them with norms based on a reference population. Using the Pain Cognition List (PCL-2003) as an example, this article shows how clinical questionnaires can be normed with multiple regression of raw scores on demographic and other patient variables. Compared with traditional norm tables for subgroups based on age or gender, this approach offers 2 advantages. First, multiple regression allows determination of which patient variables are relevant to the norming and which are not (validity). Second, by using information from the entire sample, multiple regression leads to continuous and more stable norms for any subgroup defined in terms of prognostic variables (reliability).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)336-344
JournalPsychological Assessment
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2005

Cite this