Neurofeedback as a Treatment Intervention in ADHD: Current Evidence and Practice

Stefanie Enriquez-Geppert*, Diede Smit, Miguel Garcia Pimenta, Martijn Arns

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

41 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current traditional treatments for ADHD present serious limitations in terms of long-term maintenance of symptom remission and side effects. Here, we provide an overview of the rationale and scientific evidence of the efficacy of neurofeedback in regulating the brain functions in ADHD. We also review the institutional and professional regulation of clinical neurofeedback implementations.

RECENT FINDINGS: Based on meta-analyses and (large multicenter) randomized controlled trials, three standard neurofeedback training protocols, namely theta/beta (TBR), sensori-motor rhythm (SMR), and slow cortical potential (SCP), turn out to be efficacious and specific. However, the practical implementation of neurofeedback as a clinical treatment is currently not regulated. We conclude that neurofeedback based on standard protocols in ADHD should be considered as a viable treatment alternative and suggest that further research is needed to understand how specific neurofeedback protocols work. Eventually, we emphasize the need for standard neurofeedback training for practitioners and binding standards for use in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Article number46
Pages (from-to)46
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Psychiatry Reports
Volume21
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Meta-Analysis as Topic
  • Neurofeedback
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Treatment Outcome
  • QUANTITATIVE EEG
  • ADHD
  • CONTROLLED-TRIAL
  • Current status
  • HYPERACTIVITY
  • SLOW CORTICAL POTENTIALS
  • Brain computer interface
  • SYMPTOMS
  • BIOFEEDBACK
  • Clinical practice
  • CHILDREN
  • ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
  • EEG-NEUROFEEDBACK
  • RHYTHM

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