This study examined the concept of need for recovery, that is the need to recuperate from work-induced fatigue, experienced after a day of work. The study explored the relationship between need for recovery from work, prolonged fatigue, and psychological distress in the working population. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Data of the Maastricht Cohort Study on fatigue at work were used (n = 12,095). Some degree of need for recovery was found in nearly all employees. Need for recovery from work was associated with demographic, work-related, and health factors. Principal Components Analysis revealed obvious separation between need for recovery items and both fatigue items and psychological distress items, supporting the notion that need for recovery, fatigue, and psychological distress represent different underlying concepts. Although need for recovery, fatigue, and psychological distress were frequently comorbid, they also clearly occurred as separate entities.