While studying the effect of structure on satiety, effects of mode of consumption, additional water to drink, and thirst have been neglected. The objective was to assess effects of structure, mode of consumption of food, and additional drinking of water on fullness and thirst. In study 1, 20 subjects (BMI 22.5 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2); age 21.4 +/- 3 years) underwent consumption conditions; SEW: solids to eat + 750 ml water to drink; LEW: liquefied soup to eat including 500 ml water + 250 ml water separately to drink; LDW: the same as LEW but served as drinks; SE, LE, and LD: the same as previous but without water to drink. In study 2, a subset of subjects underwent consumption conditions: solid carbohydrate, solid protein, solid fat: the same as SEW, but for each macronutrient separately; liquefied carbohydrate, liquefied protein, liquefied fat: the same as LEW, but for each macronutrient separately. Appetite, insulin concentration, glucose concentration, and ghrelin concentration were measured. Eating, independent of structure, suppressed desire to eat more than drinking (P < 0.01). Drinking water separately vs. water consumption in the food suppressed thirst more (P < 0.001). Regarding protein, satiety was higher in the solid vs. liquefied condition, while blood parameters were not significantly different. Only after drinking a meal most subjects (80%) wanted to consume more of the same meal, in order to alleviate hunger (63%) or quench thirst (37%). We conclude that mode of consumption plays a role in alleviating hunger and thirst. Subjects required further consumption after drinking the meal, motivated by hunger or thirst, showing that drinking a meal causes confusion that may imply a risk of overconsumption.
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- DIETARY FIBER