MicroGelzymes: pH-Independent Immobilization of Cytochrome P450 BM3 in Microgels

Maximilian Noeth, Larissa Hussmann, Thomke Belthle, Islam El-Awaad, Mehdi D. Davari, Felix Jakob, Andrij Pich*, Ulrich Schwaneberg*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Microgels are an emerging class of "ideal" enzyme carriers because of their chemical and process stability, biocompatibility, and high enzyme loading capability. In this work, we synthesized a new type of permanently positively charged poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PVCL) microgel with 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium (quaternization of nitrogen by methylation of N-vinylimidazole moieties) as a comonomer (PVCL/VimQ) through precipitation polymerization. The PVCL/VimQ microgels were characterized with respect to their size, charge, swelling degree, and temperature responsiveness in aqueous solutions. P450 monooxygenases are usually challenging to immobilize, and often, high activity losses occur after the immobilization (in the case of P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium up to 100% loss of activity). The electrostatic immobilization of P450 BM3 in permanently positively charged PVCL/VimQ microgels was achieved without the loss of catalytic activity at the pH optimum of P450 BM3 (pH 8; similar to 9.4 nmol 7-hydroxy-3-carboxy coumarin ethyl ester/min for free and immobilized P450 BM3); the resulting P450-microgel systems were termed P450 MicroGelzymes (P450 mu-Gelzymes). In addition, P450 mu-Gelzymes offer the possibility of reversible ionic strength-triggered release and re-entrapment of the biocatalyst in processes (e.g., for catalyst reuse). Finally, a characterization of the potential of P450 mu-Gelzymes to provide resistance against cosolvents (acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, and 2-propanol) was performed to evaluate the biocatalytic application potential.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5128-5138
Number of pages11
JournalBiomacromolecules
Volume21
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020

Keywords

  • DIRECTED EVOLUTION
  • COVALENT IMMOBILIZATION
  • ENZYME IMMOBILIZATION
  • HYDROXYLATION
  • TEMPERATURE
  • P450BM3
  • SYSTEM
  • BIOCATALYSIS
  • HYDROGELS
  • PROTEINS

Cite this