Mechanisms of recurrence of Ta/T1 bladder cancer.

R.T. Bryan*, S.I. Collins, M.C. Daykin, M.P. Zeegers, K. Cheng, D.M. Wallace, G.M. Sole

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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    INTRODUCTION Bladder cancer recurrence occurs via four mechanisms - incomplete resection, tumour cell re-implantation, growth of microscopic tumours, and new tumour formation. The first two mechanisms are influenced by clinicians before and immediately after resection; the remaining mechanisms have the potential to be influenced by chemopreventive agents. However, the relative importance and timing of these mechanisms is currently unknown. Our objective was to postulate the incidence and timing of these mechanisms by investigating the location of bladder cancer recurrences over time.PATIENTS AND METHODS The topographical locations of tumours and their recurrences were analysed retrospectively for 169 patients newly-diagnosed with Ta/T1 bladder cancer, with median follow-up of 33.8 months. Tumours were assigned to one or more of six bladder sectors, and time to recurrence and location of recurrences were recorded.RESULTS Median time to first tumour recurrence was 40 months. Median times between subsequent recurrences were 6.6, 7.9, 8.0 and 6.6 months for recurrences 1 to 2, 2 to 3, 3 to 4, and 4 to 5, respectively. The risk of first tumour recurrence in any given bladder sector increased by nearly 4-fold if the primary tumour was resected from that sector (P < 0.001); this association was not significant for subsequent recurrences. The proportion of tumour recurrences in multiple bladder sectors increased from 13% for the first recurrence to 100% for recurrence seven onwards.CONCLUSIONS First tumour recurrence appears different to subsequent recurrences; incomplete resection and tumour cell reimplantation may dominate at this time-point. Only later does genuine new tumour formation appear to increase in importance. This has important implications for clinical trials, especially those involving chemopreventive agents.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)519-524
    Number of pages6
    JournalAnnals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - Sept 2010


    • Bladder cancer
    • Mechanisms
    • Recurrence

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