MDMA (ecstasy) effects on actual driving performance before and after sleep deprivation, as function of dose and concentration in blood and oral fluid

W.M. Bosker, K.P.C. Kuypers, S. Conen, G.F. Kauert, S.W. Toennes, G. Skopp, J.G. Ramaekers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

RATIONALE: Experimental research has shown that 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can improve some psychomotor driving skills when administered during the day. In real life, however, MDMA is taken during the night, and driving may likely occur early in the morning after a night of "raving" and sleep loss. OBJECTIVES: The present study assessed the effects of MDMA on road-tracking and car-following performance in on-the-road driving tests in normal traffic. METHODS: Sixteen recreational MDMA users participated in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled four-way cross-over design. They received single, evening doses of 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg MDMA on separate occasions. Actual driving tests were conducted in the evening when MDMA serum concentrations were maximal and in the morning after a night of sleep loss. RESULTS: The primary measure of driving, i.e., standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP, a measure of weaving) was significantly increased during driving tests in the morning in all treatment conditions, irrespective of MDMA dose and concentration. The increments in SDLP were of high clinical relevance and comparable to those observed for alcohol at blood alcohol concentrations >0.8 mg/mL. These impairments were primarily caused by sleep loss. CONCLUSIONS: In general, MDMA did not affect driving performance nor did it change the impairing effects of sleep loss. It is concluded that MDMA cannot compensate for the impairing effects of sleep loss and that drivers who are under the influence of MDMA and sleep deprived are unfit to drive.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)367-376
Number of pages10
JournalPsychopharmacology
Volume222
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2012

Keywords

  • Driving under the influence of drugs
  • DUID
  • MDMA
  • Ecstasy
  • Sleep deprivation
  • Oral fluid
  • 75 MG
  • PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION
  • MEMORY IMPAIRMENT
  • ALCOHOL
  • NIGHT
  • INTOXICATION
  • DRUGS
  • MOOD

Cite this

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title = "MDMA (ecstasy) effects on actual driving performance before and after sleep deprivation, as function of dose and concentration in blood and oral fluid",
abstract = "RATIONALE: Experimental research has shown that 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can improve some psychomotor driving skills when administered during the day. In real life, however, MDMA is taken during the night, and driving may likely occur early in the morning after a night of {"}raving{"} and sleep loss. OBJECTIVES: The present study assessed the effects of MDMA on road-tracking and car-following performance in on-the-road driving tests in normal traffic. METHODS: Sixteen recreational MDMA users participated in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled four-way cross-over design. They received single, evening doses of 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg MDMA on separate occasions. Actual driving tests were conducted in the evening when MDMA serum concentrations were maximal and in the morning after a night of sleep loss. RESULTS: The primary measure of driving, i.e., standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP, a measure of weaving) was significantly increased during driving tests in the morning in all treatment conditions, irrespective of MDMA dose and concentration. The increments in SDLP were of high clinical relevance and comparable to those observed for alcohol at blood alcohol concentrations >0.8 mg/mL. These impairments were primarily caused by sleep loss. CONCLUSIONS: In general, MDMA did not affect driving performance nor did it change the impairing effects of sleep loss. It is concluded that MDMA cannot compensate for the impairing effects of sleep loss and that drivers who are under the influence of MDMA and sleep deprived are unfit to drive.",
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author = "W.M. Bosker and K.P.C. Kuypers and S. Conen and G.F. Kauert and S.W. Toennes and G. Skopp and J.G. Ramaekers",
year = "2012",
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doi = "10.1007/s00213-011-2497-8",
language = "English",
volume = "222",
pages = "367--376",
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MDMA (ecstasy) effects on actual driving performance before and after sleep deprivation, as function of dose and concentration in blood and oral fluid. / Bosker, W.M.; Kuypers, K.P.C.; Conen, S.; Kauert, G.F.; Toennes, S.W.; Skopp, G.; Ramaekers, J.G.

In: Psychopharmacology, Vol. 222, No. 3, 08.2012, p. 367-376.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - MDMA (ecstasy) effects on actual driving performance before and after sleep deprivation, as function of dose and concentration in blood and oral fluid

AU - Bosker, W.M.

AU - Kuypers, K.P.C.

AU - Conen, S.

AU - Kauert, G.F.

AU - Toennes, S.W.

AU - Skopp, G.

AU - Ramaekers, J.G.

PY - 2012/8

Y1 - 2012/8

N2 - RATIONALE: Experimental research has shown that 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can improve some psychomotor driving skills when administered during the day. In real life, however, MDMA is taken during the night, and driving may likely occur early in the morning after a night of "raving" and sleep loss. OBJECTIVES: The present study assessed the effects of MDMA on road-tracking and car-following performance in on-the-road driving tests in normal traffic. METHODS: Sixteen recreational MDMA users participated in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled four-way cross-over design. They received single, evening doses of 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg MDMA on separate occasions. Actual driving tests were conducted in the evening when MDMA serum concentrations were maximal and in the morning after a night of sleep loss. RESULTS: The primary measure of driving, i.e., standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP, a measure of weaving) was significantly increased during driving tests in the morning in all treatment conditions, irrespective of MDMA dose and concentration. The increments in SDLP were of high clinical relevance and comparable to those observed for alcohol at blood alcohol concentrations >0.8 mg/mL. These impairments were primarily caused by sleep loss. CONCLUSIONS: In general, MDMA did not affect driving performance nor did it change the impairing effects of sleep loss. It is concluded that MDMA cannot compensate for the impairing effects of sleep loss and that drivers who are under the influence of MDMA and sleep deprived are unfit to drive.

AB - RATIONALE: Experimental research has shown that 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can improve some psychomotor driving skills when administered during the day. In real life, however, MDMA is taken during the night, and driving may likely occur early in the morning after a night of "raving" and sleep loss. OBJECTIVES: The present study assessed the effects of MDMA on road-tracking and car-following performance in on-the-road driving tests in normal traffic. METHODS: Sixteen recreational MDMA users participated in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled four-way cross-over design. They received single, evening doses of 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg MDMA on separate occasions. Actual driving tests were conducted in the evening when MDMA serum concentrations were maximal and in the morning after a night of sleep loss. RESULTS: The primary measure of driving, i.e., standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP, a measure of weaving) was significantly increased during driving tests in the morning in all treatment conditions, irrespective of MDMA dose and concentration. The increments in SDLP were of high clinical relevance and comparable to those observed for alcohol at blood alcohol concentrations >0.8 mg/mL. These impairments were primarily caused by sleep loss. CONCLUSIONS: In general, MDMA did not affect driving performance nor did it change the impairing effects of sleep loss. It is concluded that MDMA cannot compensate for the impairing effects of sleep loss and that drivers who are under the influence of MDMA and sleep deprived are unfit to drive.

KW - Driving under the influence of drugs

KW - DUID

KW - MDMA

KW - Ecstasy

KW - Sleep deprivation

KW - Oral fluid

KW - 75 MG

KW - PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION

KW - MEMORY IMPAIRMENT

KW - ALCOHOL

KW - NIGHT

KW - INTOXICATION

KW - DRUGS

KW - MOOD

U2 - 10.1007/s00213-011-2497-8

DO - 10.1007/s00213-011-2497-8

M3 - Article

VL - 222

SP - 367

EP - 376

JO - Psychopharmacology

JF - Psychopharmacology

SN - 0033-3158

IS - 3

ER -