Machine-learning model derived gene signature predictive of paclitaxel survival benefit in gastric cancer: results from the randomised phase III SAMIT trial

R. Sundar, N.B. Kumarakulasinghe, Y.H. Chan, K. Yoshida, T. Yoshikawa, Y. Miyagi, Y. Rino, M. Masuda, J. Guan, J. Sakamoto, S. Tanaka, A.L.K. Tan*, M.M. Hoppe, A.D. Jeyasekharan, C.C.Y. Ng, M. De Simone, H.I. Grabsch, J. Lee, T. Oshima*, A. Tsuburaya*P. Tan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Objective To date, there are no predictive biomarkers to guide selection of patients with gastric cancer (GC) who benefit from paclitaxel. Stomach cancer Adjuvant Multi-Institutional group Trial (SAMIT) was a 2x2 factorial randomised phase III study in which patients with GC were randomised to Pac-S-1 (paclitaxel +S-1), Pac-UFT (paclitaxel +UFT), S-1 alone or UFT alone after curative surgery. Design The primary objective of this study was to identify a gene signature that predicts survival benefit from paclitaxel chemotherapy in GC patients. SAMIT GC samples were profiled using a customised 476 gene NanoString panel. A random forest machine-learning model was applied on the NanoString profiles to develop a gene signature. An independent cohort of metastatic patients with GC treated with paclitaxel and ramucirumab (Pac-Ram) served as an external validation cohort. Results From the SAMIT trial 499 samples were analysed in this study. From the Pac-S-1 training cohort, the random forest model generated a 19-gene signature assigning patients to two groups: Pac-Sensitive and Pac-Resistant. In the Pac-UFT validation cohort, Pac-Sensitive patients exhibited a significant improvement in disease free survival (DFS): 3-year DFS 66% vs 40% (HR 0.44, p=0.0029). There was no survival difference between Pac-Sensitive and Pac-Resistant in the UFT or S-1 alone arms, test of interaction p<0.001. In the external Pac-Ram validation cohort, the signature predicted benefit for Pac-Sensitive (median PFS 147 days vs 112 days, HR 0.48, p=0.022). Conclusion Using machine-learning techniques on one of the largest GC trials (SAMIT), we identify a gene signature representing the first predictive biomarker for paclitaxel benefit.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)676-685
Number of pages10
JournalGut
Volume71
Issue number4
Early online date11 May 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022

Keywords

  • gastric cancer
  • chemotherapy
  • adjuvant treatment
  • COMPREHENSIVE MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION
  • CISPLATIN
  • CHEMOTHERAPY
  • 5-FLUOROURACIL
  • SENSITIVITY
  • DOCETAXEL
  • THERAPY
  • FAMILY
  • TUMORS
  • UFT

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