Long-term prognosis of young breastcancer patients (≤40 years) who did not receive adjuvant systemic treatment: protocol for the PARADIGM initiative cohort study

Gwen M. H. E. Dackus, Natalie D. ter Hoeve, Mark Opdam, Willem Vreuls, Zsuzsanna Varga, Esther Koop, Stefan M. Willems, Carolien H. M. Van Deurzen, Emilie J. Groen, Alicia Cordoba, Jos Bart, Antien L. Mooyaart, Jan G. van den Tweel, Vicky Zolota, Jelle Wesseling, Anna Sapino, Ewa Chmielik, Ales Ryska, Frederic Amant, Annegien BroeksRon Kerkhoven, Nikolas Stathonikos, Mitko Veta, Adri Voogd, Katarzyna Jozwiak, Michael Hauptmann, Marlous Hoogstraat, Marjanka K. Schmidt, Gabe Sonke, Elsken van der Wall, Sabine Siesling, Paul J. van Diest, Sabine C. Linn*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Introduction Currently used tools for breast cancer prognostication and prediction may not adequately reflect a young patient's prognosis or likely treatment benefit because they were not adequately validated in young patients. Since breast cancers diagnosed at a young age are considered prognostically unfavourable, many treatment guidelines recommend adjuvant systemic treatment for all young patients. Patients cured by locoregional treatment alone are, therefore, overtreated. Lack of prognosticators for young breast cancer patients represents an unmet medical need and has led to the initiation of the PAtients with bReAst cancer DIaGnosed preMenopausally (PARADIGM) initiative. Our aim is to reduce overtreatment of women diagnosed with breast cancer aged

Methods and analysis All young, adjuvant systemic treatment naive breast cancer patients, who had no prior malignancy and were diagnosed between 1989 and 2000, were identified using the population based Netherlands Cancer Registry (n=3525). Archival tumour tissues were retrieved through linkage with the Dutch nationwide pathology registry. Tissue slides will be digitalised and placed on an online image database platform for clinicopathological revision by an international team of breast pathologists. Immunohistochemical subtype will be assessed using tissue microarrays. Tumour RNA will be isolated and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Differences in gene expression found between patients with a favourable and those with a less favourable prognosis will be used to establish a prognostic classifier, using the triple negative patients as proof of principle.

Ethics and dissemination Observational data from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and left over archival patient material are used. Therefore, the Dutch law on Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO) is not applicable. The PARADIGM study received a 'non-WMO' declaration from the Medical Ethics Committee of the Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek hospital, waiving individual patient consent. All data and material used are stored in a coded way. Study results will be presented at international (breast cancer) conferences and published in peer-reviewed, open-access journals.

Original languageEnglish
Article number017842
Number of pages6
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2017


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