Objective:To assess weight maintenance after weight loss by consumption of yoghurt with a novel fat emulsion (Olibra) including effects on body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), fat oxidation, hunger feelings and satiety hormones.Design:A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel design. A 6-week weight loss period (2.1 MJ/day) was followed by 18 weeks weight maintenance with test (Olibra) or placebo yoghurt.Subjects:Fifty overweight women (age: 18-58 years, body mass index (BMI) 25-32 kg/m(2)).Measurements:In weeks 1, 7 and 25, a satiety test with questionnaires and blood samples for analysis of satiety hormones. In weeks 2, 8 and 26, REE, body weight and body composition.Results:During weight maintenance after significant body weight reduction, there was no significant increase in body weight in the test group (1.1+/-3.4 kg); the placebo group did gain weight (3.0+/-3.1 kg, P<0.001). Compared to the placebo group, the test group was less hungry 4 h after yoghurt consumption in week 25 (P<0.05) and showed increased glucagon like peptide-1 values 180 min after yoghurt consumption (week 25 vs week 1, P<0.05). Measured REE as a function of fat-free mass (FFM) was significantly higher than predicted REE (P<0.05) in week 26 for the test group, but not for the placebo group. Fat mass (FM) was significantly more decreased in the test group (6.5+/-4.1 kg) compared to the placebo group (4.1+/-3.6 kg) (week 26 vs week 2, P<0.05).Conclusion:Consumption of Olibra yoghurt improved weight maintenance compared to placebo, which can be explained by the relatively higher REE as a function of FFM, relatively higher decrease in FM and the relatively lower increase in hunger.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 13 February 2007; doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803532.