Long-Stay Psychiatric Patients: A Prospective Study Revealing Persistent Antipsychotic-Induced Movement Disorder

Roberto P. Bakker*, Izaak W. de Groot, Jim van Os, Peter N. van Harten

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of persistent drug-induced movement disorders namely, tardive dyskinesia (TD), parkinsonism, akathisia and tardive dystonia in a representative sample of long-stay patients with chronic severe mental illness. Method: Naturalistic study of 209, mainly white, antipsychotic-treated patients, mostly diagnosed with psychotic disorder. Of this group, the same rater examined 194 patients at least two times over a 4-year period, with a mean follow-up time of 1.1 years, with validated scales for TD, parkinsonism, akathisia, and tardive dystonia. Results: The frequencies of persistent movement disorders in the sample were 28.4% for TD, 56.2% for parkinsonism, 4.6% for akathisia and 5.7% for tardive dystonia. Two-thirds of the participants displayed at least one type of persistent movement disorder. Conclusions: Persistent movement disorder continues to be the norm for long-stay patients with chronic mental illness and long-term antipsychotic treatment. Measures are required to remedy this situation.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere25588
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 3 Oct 2011

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