Lipopolysaccharide binding protein and serum amyloid A secretion by human intestinal epithelial cells during the acute phase response

A.C.E. Vreugdenhil*, M.A. Dentener, A.M.P. Snoek, J.W.M. Greve, W.A. Buurman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The acute phase proteins LPS binding protein (LBP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are produced by the liver and are present in the circulation. Both proteins have been shown to participate in the immune response to endotoxins. The intestinal mucosa forms a large surface that is continuously exposed to these microbial products. By secretion of antimicrobial and immunomodulating agents, the intestinal epithelium contributes to the defense against bacteria and their products. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of the inflammatory mediators TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta on the release of LBP and SAA by intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). In addition, the induction of LBP and SAA release by cell lines of intestinal epithelial cells and hepatic cells was compared. The data obtained show that in addition to liver cells, IEC also expressed LBP mRNA and released bioactive LBP and SAA upon stimulation. Regulation of LBP and SAA release by IEC and hepatocytes was typical for class 1 acute phase proteins, although differences in regulation between the cell types were observed. Endotoxin did not induce LBP and SAA release. Glucocorticoids were demonstrated to strongly enhance the cytokine-induced release of LBP and SAA by IEC, corresponding to hepatocytes. The data from this study, which imply that human IEC can produce LBP and SAA, suggest a role for these proteins in the local defense mechanism of the gut to endotoxin. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that tissues other than the liver are involved in the acute phase response.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2792-2798
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Immunology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1999

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