Knowledge corruption for visual perception in individuals high on paranoia

S. Moritz, A.S. Goritz, N. Van Quaquebeke, C. Andreou, D. Jungclaussen, M.J.V. Peters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Studies revealed that patients with paranoid schizophrenia display overconfidence in errors for memory and social cognition tasks. The present investigation examined whether this pattern holds true for visual perception tasks. Nonclinical participants were recruited via an online panel. Individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire that included the Paranoia Checklist and were then presented with 24 blurry pictures; half contained a hidden object while the other half showed snowy (visual) noise. Participants were asked to state whether the visual items contained an object and how confident they were in their judgment. Data from 1966 individuals were included following a conservative selection process. Participants high on core paranoid symptoms showed a poor calibration of confidence for correct versus incorrect responses. In particular, participants high on paranoia displayed overconfidence in incorrect responses and demonstrated a 20% error rate for responses made with high confidence compared to a 12% error rate in participants with low paranoia scores. Interestingly, paranoia scores declined after performance of the task. For the first time, overconfidence in errors was demonstrated among individuals with high levels of paranoia using a visual perception task, tentatively suggesting it is a ubiquitous phenomenon. In view of the significant decline in paranoia across time, bias modification programs may incorporate items such as the one employed here to teach patients with clinical paranoia the fallibility of human cognition, which may foster subsequent symptom improvement.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)700-705
Number of pages6
JournalPsychiatry Research
Volume215
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Mar 2014

Keywords

  • Paranoia
  • Schizophrenia
  • Confidence
  • Delusions
  • Knowledge corruption
  • Visual illusions
  • Depression
  • DISCONFIRMATORY EVIDENCE
  • PSYCHOSIS CONTINUUM
  • MEMORY CONFIDENCE
  • VISION SCIENCE
  • MEDIATING ROLE
  • SCHIZOPHRENIA
  • DELUSIONS
  • BIASES
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • PERFORMANCE

Cite this

Moritz, S., Goritz, A. S., Van Quaquebeke, N., Andreou, C., Jungclaussen, D., & Peters, M. J. V. (2014). Knowledge corruption for visual perception in individuals high on paranoia. Psychiatry Research, 215(3), 700-705. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2013.12.044
Moritz, S. ; Goritz, A.S. ; Van Quaquebeke, N. ; Andreou, C. ; Jungclaussen, D. ; Peters, M.J.V. / Knowledge corruption for visual perception in individuals high on paranoia. In: Psychiatry Research. 2014 ; Vol. 215, No. 3. pp. 700-705.
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Moritz, S, Goritz, AS, Van Quaquebeke, N, Andreou, C, Jungclaussen, D & Peters, MJV 2014, 'Knowledge corruption for visual perception in individuals high on paranoia', Psychiatry Research, vol. 215, no. 3, pp. 700-705. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2013.12.044

Knowledge corruption for visual perception in individuals high on paranoia. / Moritz, S.; Goritz, A.S.; Van Quaquebeke, N.; Andreou, C.; Jungclaussen, D.; Peters, M.J.V.

In: Psychiatry Research, Vol. 215, No. 3, 30.03.2014, p. 700-705.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Peters, M.J.V.

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KW - BIASES

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